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Wastewater

Efficient wastewater treatment

We are a reliable partner for all your wastewater treatment needs with our solid application knowhow, comprehensive range of water treatment chemicals and global network of coagulant and polymer manufacturing plants.

We support you in optimizing your wastewater treatment efficiency.

Optimizing energy efficiency with chemistry

Chemicals can bring substantial energy savings in the wastewater treatment process. Energy savings also improve cost-efficiency and sustainability. Using coagulants in addition to, or instead of, biological methods can save up to 50% of aeration energy in organic (BOD) removal, and can double biogas production.

Energy usage for treatment usage

Source: Chemical Wastewater Treatment – Value for Money (H. Ødegaard, I. Karlsson, Gothenburg Symposium, Vol. 3)

Biogas production for treatment processes

Download PDF: Improving energy consumptionImproving energy consumption

Case: Palm Beach, Optimizing odor & corrosion control

The town of Palm Beach, Florida needed an optimized odor control treatment system for main flows of fluctuating force. The South Florida wastewater treatment plants share the problem of consistently warm waters and varying levels of dissolved sulfides. Kemira provided the smart technology to determine dissolved sulfides in real-time and auto-optimize iron salt dosage. Using monitoring and chemicals leads to a more cost and labor efficient process.

Download PDF: Case Palm BeachCase Palm Beach – Auto-Optimized Dosing System

Most efficient ways of phosphorus removal

Less and less phosphorus is allowed in wastewater treatment plant effluent. With chemical precipitation you can achieve at best 0.1 mg/l in effluent in situations where biological treatment has already lost the game.

Achievable P-Effluent

Benefits of chemical phosphorus removal include:
– P-levels kept consistently low at WWTPs.
– Makes flocs heavier, enhancing sedimentation and preventing the re-dissolving of bound P.

US EPA report "Low P"US EPA report "Low P" (Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency)

How to handle storm water events?

Storm water events require flexible, fast and safe solutions from wastewater treatment plants. Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) increases the removal of suspended solid particles in the primary clarifier by applying chemistry that agglomerates particles for more rapid settling.

At the King County Brightwater Wastewater Treatment Plant in Seattle, USA, CEPT technology was implemented for high wet weather flows.

Download PDF: Case: BrightwaterCase: Brightwater

Iron salts vs. H2S

H2S, or hydrogen sulfide, forms in wastewater streams when the environment starts to be septic. This causes not only harm to human health but also to constructions, which can lead to heavy damages in sewer systems. H2S also causes corrosion to metals in, for instance, pumps, resulting in interruptions in operation and high reconstruction costs. These problems can be avoided with the use of iron salts.

Download PDF: Odor control brochureOdor control brochure


Sludge treatment

Reducing water, reducing cost

With the best in the business recovery rates and reject water quality, we help you separate liquid from solids in all sludge types and with all kinds of dewatering equipment. Partnering with us offers you a full range of organic and inorganic coagulants and polymers, combined with extensive application knowhow.

Download PDF: More about liquid-solid separationMore about liquid-solid separation

Wasting no more phosphorus

Disposal routes for sewage sludge are subject to active debate. While land application as a direct way of nutrient recycling is well accepted in the United States, in Europe the approach has been very different. For a long time, the presumption was that plants can't use iron-bound phosphates for growth, but now it has been proven that they can. With chemically precipitated sludge, effective nutrient recycling is possible, making phosphorus available to plants and crops. Let's stop wasting valuable phosphorus.

ACS Pubs: Phosphorus StudyACS Pubs: Phosphorus Study (Source: National Sanitation Foundation)

Download PDF: Recovering phosphorusRecovering phosphorus

Bioenergy from sludge

In the wastewater treatment process, the only phase where you can create energy instead of consuming it is in the digester, by producing biogas from organic sludge.

Kemira's biogas booster is an iron coagulant based product, including special micronutrients, which improves digester performance.

Micronutrients' requirements in the digestion process

In Lebork, Poland, the family-owned Farm Frites – the third largest potato processing company in the world – wanted to reduce biomass wash-out, while increasing capacity and process stability.

As a result of using the Kemira biogas booster, Farm Frites managed to lower their costs and stabilize the operational process. Biomass growth was improved, and biomass washout reduced, resulting in minimized refill.

Download PDF: Biogas brochureBiogas brochure

Case: Scaling

1. Struvite formation in digesters or dewatering trains can be prevented by the antiscalant Kemira KemGuard, as tests at a wastewater treatment plant in Poland have shown.

2. Sulphonated polymers distort struvite, vivanite, and other phosphate scales as they form a non-crystalline composition that doesn't adhere to pipes and equipment.

3. KemGuard was dosed to an overflow chamber of digested sludge. Struvite was controlled before, during and just after tests.

Cost savings with iron salts and polymers

1. The Springfield wastewater treatment plant and Kemira found a solution that brought down both capital and total costs by improving chemical treatment.

2. Ferric chloride was added to the centrifuge feed ahead of polymer to reduce too high polymer demand, and to capture residual phosphorus.

3. The solution generated cost savings because of decreased polymer demand, higher cake solids and a total reduction of coagulant dosage for phosphorus precipitation in the wastewater stream.

Download PDF: Case: Springfield dewateringCase: Springfield dewatering

Polymer choice

Each water treatment process is unique, and requires a tailored approach. Choosing the right approach to your needs is our key expertise.

Different kinds of equipment require different molecular weights within flocculants, and even variations in sludge types require different types of charges to treat it. Our solid expertise and diverse range of products offers a way to solve any situation.

Download PDF: Case: Shanghai Haibin

Download PDF: Polymer brochure


Water bodies

Healthy and safe water bodies

We partner with you in restoring lakes and other contaminated water bodies fast, reliably and sustainably. For instance, the Kemira DesinFix offers a convenient ready-to-use concept for disinfecting raw, wastewater and storm water. Our coagulants are of the highest standards, also used for producing drinking water.

More about lake restorationMore about lake restoration

Case: Saving Biarritz beaches with Kemira DesinFix

Heavy rainfall overloaded the local water treatment plant's capacity during summer 2013. Untreated wastewater polluted the sea with fecal bacteria. Bathers faced serious health risks – and local tourism was also threatened.

Kemira DesinFix provided an immediate, sustainable, and easy remedy. The disinfection started in February 2014 and by the summer the beaches were open and safe again for bathing tourists.

Click for full case description

Download PDF: DesinFix brochureDownload Kemira DesinFix brochure

Ready for the European Directive?

All bathing water in Europe must be of "sufficient quality" in 2015, according to the Bathing Water Directive (EU Directive 2006/7/EC). In order to protect the environment and human health, the directive is in full-force now. Levels of bacteria like E. Coli and Enterococci in bathing water areas have to meet the quality requirements of the directive. These requirements can be met with Kemira DesinFix (currently only available in Europe). It provides chlorine-free disinfection with low environmental impact including no disinfection by-product.

Quality requirements of indicator organisms

The Bathing Water DirectiveThe Bathing Water Directive (Source: European Union)

Case: Massive algae growth, Lake Heney

Toxic algae in water bodies is caused by eutrophication. High phosphorus concentrations and warm weather accelerate the algae growth. Bluegreen algae releases mycrocystine, a toxic substance that causes harm to animals and people.

Tugging

The Lake Heney case is a great example of what can be done to relieve the situation, even on a large scale and after several years of an unhealthy situation. Applying chemicals turned the lake's biological clock back by 25 years.

Download PDF: Article: Rebalancing lake chemistryArticle: Rebalancing lake chemistry (Source: Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine)

UV beater

Water disinfection with performic acid is more efficient than with UV-technology. It has up to 40% less kg CO2 equivalent and works reliably – also in highly turbid waters.

Kemira DesinFix has less overall negative impact on the environment compared to UV light in all the countries studied.

DesinFix environmental impact

DesinFix: Innovation in Water and/or Wastewater management

Protecting the Baltic Sea

Kemira is committed to the protection and rehabilitation of the Baltic Sea. In 2009, we signed the Baltic Sea Commitment to Act in Helsinki, Finland. Kemira is involved in several business activities playing a major role in decreasing the wastewater load of the highly polluted shallow sea.

By signing the Act Kemira committed to lending its expertise and research efforts to returning sludge-borne valuable nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, safely to the natural cycle without causing water body eutrophication.

Kemira is a key player and participant in joint research projects and water treatment - contributing to a cleaner future for the Baltic Sea.

Download PDF: Phosphorus position paperPhosphorus position paper


Drinking water

Safe and reliable drinking water

Precision and consistency, regulatory compliance – we help you meet the requirements for reliably drinkable water. It takes special grades of FDA-compliant and NSF-certified coagulants and polymers, as well as a secure supply chain. Different sources of drinking water need different treatment, and this is where we help you.

Case: Dealing with high organic loads in surface water

1. High organic load in raw water is best removed with iron salts.

2. Surface water treatment plants in Finland have replaced aluminum salts with iron salts at the flocculation stage since the late 1990’s for better results.

3. The pH for best organic (TOC) removal rates is dependent on the amount and type of organic material in the water to be treated.

Iron or aluminum in chemical precipitation? There is no simple answer to the question which coagulant is best for raw water treatment. It all depends on the water quality and your process.

Experience from Pitkäkoski

Requirement: meeting the highest quality standards

The quality of surface water is very rarely good enough to be used for drinking without treatment. Coagulation and flocculation are the most effective treatment methods.

There are different local quality standards around the world, such as the NSF Standard 60, CEN Regulations, DIN EN standards, that regulate both the treated water that comes from the tap, as well as the chemicals used to treat the water.

By meeting or surpassing the highest quality standards with our products, we help deliver the best possible drinking water to people.

NSF Certified Chemicals (Source: National Sanitation Foundation)

Making potable water from soft water

Soft water requires “softer” products such as Kemira PAX or PAX-HP or -XL types, which have a special feature, the so called “basicity”. The higher the basicity, the smaller the reduction in alkalinity of the raw water. PAX products reduce or even eliminate the need to add alkali in the form of lime or lye.

According to Kemira’s recommendation the Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Plant in Saskatchewan, Canada changed from aluminum sulfate to PAX. Main reported benefits:

Dose response curve

A reminder of what we mean when we talk of soft water: Soft water has a relatively low concentration of calcium carbonate and other ions. Hard water has high mineral content, and ions, usually calcium (Ca2+) or magnesium (Mg2+).

Case: Buffalo Pound

Polymerized power ions

The outstanding feature of PAX products: The aluminum ions are polymerized! They carry a higher charge than "normal" Al3+ ions and are hence more effective at much lower dosages in the flocculation performance.

The reaction of a PAX product in water is complex. Often it‘s a mixture between precipitation, coagulation and flocculation. PAX contains a decent amount of highly charged cations, which improves the coagulation performance significantly.

Power ions

Case: Potable water, Saudi Arabia

Potable water is scarce in Saudi Arabia, and local environmental policies address the issue whenever possible. In the Eastern Province a reverse osmosis plant treats industrial wastewater to quality levels that allow reuse for industrial applications and irrigation. The Kemira KemGuard antiscalant is used to prevent deposit formation on the membranes, and Kemira Superfloc® polymers are used in pre-treatment.

Case: Water reuse in Saudi Arabia


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